PAUL AIRLINES – BUSH & VFR OPERATIONS – WORLD’S RIVERS
All land is part
of a watershed or
river basin and all is shaped by the water which flows over it and
Indeed, rivers are such an integral part of the land that in many
would be as appropriate to talk of “riverscapes” as it would be of
A river is much more than water flowing to the sea. Its ever–shifting
banks and the groundwater below, are all integral parts of the river.
meadows, forests, marshes and backwaters of its floodplain can be seen
of a river – and the river as part of them. A river carries downhill
water, but just as importantly sediments, dissolved minerals, and the
detritus of plants and animals, both dead and alive.
St Paul Airlines Bush
& VFR operation’s “RIVERS DEPARTMENT” is dedicated to these mythic
huge waterways, all over the World, which have been the
mainstream of civilization, growth, development and human progress.
will have the opportunity to discover and follow the flow of the
famous watercourses such as Mississippi, St Lawrence, Amazon, Danube,
Volga, Nile, Yangtze, Mekong, Ganges and many others.
of the SPA RIVERS DEPARTMENT:
Choose your destination on
the table below
Europe to the Black Sea (Romania)
the North Sea (Netherland)
to the Gulf of Mexico
Peru to the
Atlantic Ocean, near Belem - Brazil
second longest river
its source to St
Louis, into the Mississippi River
Columbia Canada to the Bering sea Alaska
white Nile river
from Uganda to the Mediterranean delta
Argentina through Iguazu Falls
you to follow the Danube River from its Source
in the South-West Germany “Black Forest” area, to Romania and the Black
In many ways, the Danube "is
more than a river”. Europe's second-longest river (after the Volga),
simultaneously unites, defines and divides Central Europe.
It rises in Germany,
then crosses Austria (it waters
Vienna), Slovakia (it waters
Bratislava) and Hungary (it
crosses Budapest). It then forms the Serbo-Croatian border, crosses
Serbia and waters Belgrade. The river
then forms the border between Romania (North) and Bulgaria (South). It
enters Romania, forms a part of
the border with Ukraine before entering the Black Sea through a large
swampy delta which is an important natural reserve.
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River , whose name comes from the Celtic word renos, meaning raging
flow, begins at the Rheinwaldhorn Glacier in the Swiss Alps and
flows north and east approximately 820 miles (1,320 km). The Rhine
begins as a
tumultuous Alpine stream churning through deep gorges, and although the
flow is moderated somewhat as it passes through the Lake of Constance
(Bodensee), the river remains a torrent westward to Basel.
navigable from Basel, Switzerland, to the North Sea (Rotterdam –
distance of some 500 miles (some 800 km). Eighty percent of its
pass through Germany. The entire distance cannot support ocean going
Therefore they must end their journey in Cologne, Germany. Cologne is
between Koln and Bonn. From there cargo must go by barges pushed by
ships until the Rhine reaches the three point intersection of the
France, Germany, and Switzerland, in Basel.
More info at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhine
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THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER
Mississippi River is the largest river system in the United States and
of North America. About 2,320 miles
(3,730 km) long, the river originates at
Lake Itasca, Minnesota and flows slowly southwards in sweeping
terminating 95 river miles below New Orleans, Louisiana where it begins
to the Gulf of Mexico. Along with its major tributary, the Missouri
river drains all or parts of 31 U.S. states stretching from the Rocky
in the west to the Appalachian Mountains in the east to the Canada-U.S.
on the north, including most of the Great Plains, and is the fourth
river in the world and the tenth most powerful river in the world.
RIVER ROUTE BRIEFING
that flying the Mississippi River can be hard to find from its start of
headwaters which appears to be on the north edge of Grand Rapids,
experience: it is just a small stream and
hard to follow from the air. But do not despair as further south it
broaden and grow to become much easier to tag on. Brainerd or St. Cloud
you a pretty good visual of the river.
at 1500' to 2000' MSL to pick out the scenery.
of flying the DeHavilland DHC-2 Beaver
has made it a fun trip although as of this briefing I have not
100% but I am working on it.
give names of airfields I decided to add the names of the nearest towns
as a reference if one should become lost (I did). I think a good road
atlas would be helpful in some instances so that was the basis of my
Also I've added the Heading Degrees to
assist you in flying from one town/city to another in case you get low
or tired of following the winding river.
free to send myself or Yoland any comments, suggestions, questions or
corrections. We would enjoy hearing from yo u.
Sellmayer SPA 218
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The Amazon river
Facts and figures
Peru to the Atlantic Ocean, the Amazon River
is 6’280 km long… Sorry I meant about 3’730 miles or about 3’400 nm.
Amazon River is the world's second longest river. Only the Nile, in
longer. The Amazon however, at any one point in time has the highest
water flowing down it. No other river even comes close. It may not be
but it is the widest.
The Amazon produces approximately 20 percent of all the water that the
rivers pour into the oceans on its own.
The Amazon collects water from just over 40 percent of South America's
Landmass, through the thousands of tributaries that join the main
branch of the
Amazon river. Of these tributaries, 17 are over 1’600kilometres (1’000
Iquitos in Peru all the way across Brazil to the Atlantic, the Amazon
between six and ten kilometres wide.
The first European found the amazon because he was 200 miles out to sea
noticed that he was sailing in fresh water. He turned toward shore and
the “Amazon river”. Ships still today anchor in the outflow of the
remove the marine life (barnacles) attached to their hulls (salt water
organisms can't live in fresh water).
fly the 29 legs so as to complete the entire AMAZON VFR RAID, be aware
distances on the schedule are measured straight line… Nevertheless I
to following the river and, if you look at the picture on the left, you
figure out that it could take a much longer time than what is indicated
schedule… but it’s more fun. Do as you feel!
when you have completed all the 29 legs of the AMAZON TOUR, send me a
that I can put your name on the future “Amazon Hall of Fame”.
more information about the Amazon, please visit:
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The Mackenzie River
The Mackenzie River
system, 4241 km long (to head
of the Finlay River), is the second largest in North America (after the
Mississippi River). Its total drainage basin of 1.8 million km2 is
the largest of any river in Canada and its mean discharge of 9700 m3/s
is second only to that of the St Lawrence. The river's peak discharge
June, but its flow is generally uniform because of the flat Barren
of the river and the many large lakes in the system. The lakes and
the Mackenzie and its tributaries are open from mid-June to the
November in the northerly areas.
river's sparsely populated basin is one of the
few great unspoiled areas of the world. The main headwaters are the
and the Athabasca River, while the main stream (1738 km) issues from
shallow swamps and mud banks of the West Arm of Great Slave Lake. It
to Fort Providence, where scows, canoes and York Boats were hauled
Fort Simpson the Liard River reaches the south bank of the Mackenzie,
receives its muddy waters. Near the North Nahanni River the Mackenzie
west-northwest through a rolling plain and deflects north past an
the Mackenzie Mountains, which lie parallel to the river. The Redstone
Keele rivers and other streams cut through the mountains and pour into
lowlands through deep canyons.
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Another contribution of Special Ops Assistant Manager,
The Missouri River is the longest river
in the United States of America and is a tributary of the Mississippi
The Missouri likely originates at Brower's
Spring at the upper reaches of the Jefferson River, before joining the
confluence of the Madison, Jefferson, and Gallatin rivers in Montana.
point, it flows through its valley south and east into the Mississippi
St. Louis, Missouri.
At 2,341 miles (3,767 km) long, it
drains about one-sixth of the continental United States. The Missouri
original natural meandering state was the longest river in North
Nearly 72 miles (116 km) of the river have been cut off in
channelling, and so it is now comparable in length to the
The combination of the two longest rivers in
North America forms the fourth longest river in the world.
At its confluence, the Missouri nearly doubles
the volume of the Mississippi, accounting for 45% of the flow at St.
normal times and as much as 70% of the flow during some droughts. It is
the second-largest tributary by volume of the
Mississippi, trailing the Ohio.
More information at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Missouri_River
MISSOURI RIVER ROUTE BRIEFING
River starts in the Southwest part of the state of Montana and winds
through Montana, North Dakota, and creates a border for the states of
Dakota, Nebraska, Iowa, Missouri, and Kansas.
Flying this route
you will experience flights over Montana Mountains to the vast flat
and Midwestern plains.
Since I live
within 50 miles of this meandering river I can testify to its nickname
Big Muddy” as it carries a lot of silt and is always looking brown and
At the end of its
journey it empties itself into the Mississippi River, 10 miles North of
I hope you enjoy
If you would like
to deviate upon arrival at Nebraska City, NE, turn west and fly 45
Lincoln, NE. Give me a call as the coffee is always on!
Steve Sellmeyer, SPA 218, Special Ops Assistant
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The Yukon River
The Yukon River
is a major
watercourse of northwestern North America. The source of the river is
in British Columbia, Canada. The next portion lies in, and gives its
Canada's Yukon Territory. Then, more than the lower half of the river
the U.S. state of Alaska. The river is 3,185 km (1,980 mi)
and empties into the Bering Sea at the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta. The
is 6,430 m³/s (227,000 ft³/s). The total drainage area is
(321,500 mi²) of which 323,800 km² (126,300 mi²) is in
By comparison, the total area is more than 25% larger than Texas or
The longest river in Alaska and
the Yukon Territory, it was one of the principal means of
the 1896–1903 Klondike Gold Rush. Paddle-wheel riverboats continued to
river until the 1950s, when the Klondike Highway was completed. After
purchase of Alaska by the United States in 1867, the Alaska Commercial
acquired the assets of the Russian-American Company and constructed
posts at various locations on the Yukon River.
Despite its length, there are
only four vehicle-carrying bridges across the river:
Lewes Bridge, north of Marsh Lake on the Alaska Highway;
Robert Campbell Bridge, which connects the Whitehorse suburb of
Riverdale to the downtown area,
Yukon River Bridge in Carmacks, on the Klondike Highway; and
E. L. Patton Yukon River Bridge, north of Fairbanks on the Dalton
A car ferry crosses the river at
Dawson City in the summer; it is replaced by an ice bridge over the
river during the winter. Plans to build a permanent bridge were
March 2004, although they are currently on hold because bids came in
higher than budgeted.
There are also 2 pedestrian-only
bridges in Whitehorse, as well as a dam across the river and a
generating station. The construction of the dam flooded the White Horse
which gave the city its name, and created Schwatka Lake.
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The Nile River
Nile is a
north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river
two major tributaries,
the White Nile and Blue Nile, the latter being the source of most of
water and fertile soil, but the former being the longer of the two. The
Nile rises in the Great Lakes region of central Africa, with the most
source in Southern Rwanda and flows north from there through Tanzania,
Victoria, Uganda and southern Sudan, while the Blue Nile starts at Lake
Ethiopia, flowing into Sudan from the southeast. The two rivers meet
Sudanese capital of Khartoum.
section of the river
flows almost entirely through desert, from Sudan into Egypt, a country
civilization has depended on the river since ancient times. Most of the
population and cities of Egypt lie along those parts of the Nile valley
of Aswan, and nearly all the cultural and historical sites of Ancient
found along the banks of the river.
in a large delta
that empties into the Mediterranean Sea.
For our flights, we will follow
the White Nile from Lake Victoria going all the way North to its delta
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The Ganges &
Sacred Rivers of India
The Ganges is the largest
river of the Indian subcontinent, flowing east through the Gangetic
northern India into Bangladesh.
The 2,510 km (1,560 mi) river rises in the western Himalayas in
Uttarakhand. It has long been considered the holiest of all rivers by
worshiped as the goddess Ganga in Hinduism.
It has also been important historically: many former provincial or
imperial capitals (such as Patliputra, Kannauj, Kara, Allahabad,
Murshidabad, Berhampore and Calcutta) have been located on its banks.
The Ganges Basin drains 1,000,000-square-kilometre (390,000 sq mi)
and supports one of the world's highest density of humans. The average
the river is 52 feet (16 m), and the maximum depth, 100 feet
The river has been declared as India's National River.The many symbolic
meanings of the river on the Indian
subcontinent were spoken to in 1946 by Jawaharlal Nehru in his
The Ganges, above all
is the river of India, which has held India's
heart captive and drawn uncounted millions to her banks since the dawn
history. The story of the Ganges, from her source to the sea, from old
new, is the story of India's civilization and culture, of the rise and
empires, of great and proud cities, of adventures of man…
also called Tsangpo-Brahmaputra, is a
trans-boundary river and one of the major rivers of Asia.
From its origin in southwestern Tibet as the Yarlung Tsangpo River, it
flows across southern Tibet to break through the Himalayas in great
into Arunachal Pradesh (India) where it is known as Dihang.
It flows southwest through the Assam Valley as Brahmaputra and south
through Bangladesh as the Jamuna
(not to be mistaken with Yamuna of India). There it merges with the
to form a vast delta, the Sunderbans.
About 1,800 miles (2,900 km) long, the river is an important
for irrigation and transportation. Its upper course was long unknown,
identity with the Yarlung Tsangpo was only established by exploration
The Brahmaputra is navigable for most of its length.
The lower part
reaches are sacred to Hindus. The river is prone to catastrophic
spring when the Himalayan snows melt. It is also one of the few rivers
in the world
that exhibit a tidal bore.
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The Colorado River - USA
Colorado River is the primary river of the
American Southwest, draining somewhere in the vicinity of 242,000
of land, from the states of Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, New Mexico,
Nevada and California. The Green River is the primary tributary of the
River, and until 1921 the Colorado River did not technically begin
Grand and Green Rivers joined together in Utah. In that year the Grand
was renamed as the Colorado River, at the request of the State of
headwaters of the Colorado River are located in Rocky
Mountain National Park in Colorado. From here, at an altitude of 9,010
the Colorado begins it's flow southwestward toward the Gulf o f
the Pacific Ocean. By the time the river enters the Grand Canyon, at
Ferry, its altitude has fallen to 3,110 feet, dropping over one mile
beginning. The river will drop another 2,200 feet before it reaches the
end of the Grand Canyon, the Grand Wash Cliffs, 277 miles away.
river contains alternating sections of rapids and
calm sections. The depth of the river varies from 6 feet to 90 feet,
average being about 20 feet. The rapids are the shallow sections and
sections tend to be the deepest parts. Some deep holes have also formed
base or foot of some of the more major rapids. The rapids represent
percent of the river's total length through the Grand Canyon, but are
responsible for more than half of the total drop in altitude.
Colorado River was originally named Rio Colorado
or "Red River" by the Spanish. A person looking at the river today
may not understand how it came to be named in this way, as the present
of the river is more of a blue-green. The reddish-brown colour that
gave the river its name become a rarity upon completion of the Glen
in 1963. The silt and sediments that gave the river its colour are now
behind the dam in the bottom of Lake Powell.
More info at:
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PARANA RIVER & IGUAZU FALLS
Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina
Paraná River (Spanish: Río Paraná, Portuguese: Rio Paraná) is a river
in south Central
South America, running through Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina for some
kilometres (3,030 mi). It is second in length only to the Amazon
among South American rivers. The name Paraná is an abbreviation of the
"para rehe onáva", which comes from the Tupi language and means
"like the sea" (that is, "as big as the sea"). It merges first
with the Paraguay River and then farther downstream with the Uruguay
form the Río de la Plata and empties into the Atlantic Ocean.
The Rio Paraná
along with its tributaries creates a massive watershed that spreads
much of the south central part of the continent, essentially
of Paraguay, much of southern Brazil, northern Argentina, and even
into Bolivia. If the Uruguay River is counted as a tributary to the
this watershed extends to cover much of Uruguay as well. The volume of
flowing into the Atlantic Ocean through the Río de la Plata is roughly
the volume at the Mississippi River delta. This
watershed services a number of large cities, including São Paulo,
Asunción and Brasília.
The Paraná and
its tributaries are a source of income and even daily sustenance for a
of fishermen who live along its banks; some fish species (such as the
and the sábalo) are
commercially important and exploited for massive internal consumption
or for export.
Much of the
length of the Paraná is navigable
and is used as an important waterway linking inland cities in Argentina
Paraguay to the ocean, providing deep water ports in many of these
construction of massive hydroelectric dams along the river's length has
its use as a shipping corridor to cities further upstream, but the
impact of those dams is considered to offset this. The Yacyretá
dams on the Paraguay border have made the small, largely undeveloped
world's largest exporter of hydroelectric power. The Itaipu dam is
and is 57km long.
Copyright 2014 - Yoland Grosjean - CEO St. Paul Airlines -
Special Operations Manager